Common Core State Standards (CCSS) 「各州共同核心標準」

Common Core State Standards (CCSS) – is a set of high-quality academic standards in mathematics and English language arts/literacy (ELA) and one educational system for all students. Purpose of CCSS is to provide grade-level expectations for math and English language arts for grades K-12.* CCSS 是一套為大學和職業做準備的標準, 這項為所有幼稚園至12 年級的學生準備的新標準 — 涵蓋了英文及數學科目 ……

To read the article, please open the following PDF file: Common Core State Standards (CCSS)

Why do young people on the autism spectrum find puberty difficult?
– Most children with autism have a terrible time with change. They like things to stay the same, as used to the familiarity of routine. If there are no new things, they don’t have to anticipate for any ‘attacks’ to their senses; they can anticipate what is coming next. Many will spend time lining up their toys or objects. Some parents have reported that when they have moved the furniture around, the child will move it back to where it used to be.

Now, imagine that you are the type of person who cannot stand change, that you are afraid of it. And then you notice something really freaky – your body is changing on you and you have no control over it. It is even worse if no one has told you what was going to happen ……..

To view detailed article of this information, please open the following PDF file: Puberty Brings Changes that are Difficult for Teens with Autism

Parent Advocates – PACER’s parent advocates often hear from parents when they encounter certain statements or situations at school meetings that they find uncomfortable or uncertain. These tips are suggestions and techniques from PACER advocates to help parents address some of those concerns, as well as improve communication with school staff.

For the information, please go to PACER Center website.

Three Steps to Take If Your Child is Being Targeted by Bullying at School[/header] – It is important that parents approach this situation in a calm manner and that parents keep records of facts in the situation. It is helpful if parents and school staff work together to resolve the issue. Parents can use the following steps to resolve the issue:

I. Work with your child.
II. Work with the school.
III. Work with District Administration.
More information of Bullying:

To read the full article, please open the following PDF file: Three Steps to Take If Your Child is Being Targeted by Bullying at School

When a student is in school, academics are the main focus. However, one aspect of learning that is not given enough emphasis is community building and developing relationships/friendships; the social aspect of education. Social goals and building friendships are mentioned in school conferences but are seldom fully explored ….

Social development implies that more than one person is involved, and that there are interactions with others and that there is participation in an activity. In schools, the word “social” is often found in the Individualized Education Program (IEP) annual goals.

To read the article, please open the following PDF file: Finding A Friend in School

Things to consider if your child has a disability and behavior needs – Does your child with a disability also have behavioral needs at school? If so, your child’s Individualized Education Program (IEP) can be used to address those needs as well as the needs resulting from the disability itself. Adaptations for behavioral needs may include boCreating a Positive Behavior Intervention Plan – Things to Consider if your child haas a disability and behavioral needs Plan. The Positive Behavior Intervention Plan is proactive in relationship to your child’s behavior while the Crisis Plan reacts to your child’s behavior. The plans a distinctly different and should be considered carefully.

To view the educational information, please open the following PDF file: Creating a Positive Behavior Intervention Plan and a Crisis Plan

When individuals or groups join together to work toward a common goal, a partnership is formed. Successfully reaching the goal requires mutual cooperation and a sharing of responsibilities. While carried out in different ways, the principles used to satisfy personal and business partnerships are much the same.

As a parent, you are your child’s first and most important teacher. When your child enters school, you and the school become partners in what you both hope will be a profitable, ong-term enterprise.

To read this educational information, please open the following PDF file: Parent Keys to Success In the Parent-School Partnership

Skills for Effective Parent Advocacy is a curriculum created by the National Family Advocacy Supports and Training (FAST) Project, a project of Pacer Center:

In this educational article you will learn: what advocacy means, how to improve your advocacy skills? how you can make a difference? and others …………………

To read the educational information, please open the following PDF file: Skills for Effective Parent Advocacy

This article contains: General Overview of Laws, Transition, ITP/IEP Meeting, Employment, Independent Living Centers (ILCs), other related services …………. etc.

To read the article, please open the following PDF file: Transition to Adult Services

A curriculum created by the National Family advocacy Support and Training (FAST) Project. Discussion agenda includes: Straight talk about employment, what you need to know employment, accommodations, disclosure, and interviewing, the employer’s perspective, self-employment, and questions ….

To read the publication, please open the following PDF file: Getting and Keeping the First Job

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of developmental disabilities caused by a problem with the brain. Scientists do not know yet exactly what causes this problem. ASDs can impact a person’s functioning at different levels, from very mildly to severely. There is usually nothing about how a person with an ASD looks that sets them apart from other people, but they may communicate, interact, behave, and learn in ways that are different from most people. The thinking and learning abilities of people with ASDs can vary – from gifted to severely challenged. Autistic disorder is the most commonly known type of ASD, but there are others, including “pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified” (PDD-NOS) and Asperger Syndrome ……………

To view more information of this topic, please open the CDC Web Link.

What is the problem? What are some possible causes of the problem? What are some possible soliutions? How to solve the problem ………..

To view the article, please open the following PDF file: Conflict Analysis Worksheet

What does this guide cover?

This guide contains answers to frequently asked questions about the hearing process to help parents better understand California’s special education dispute resolution system. You don’t need to read it all to start the process, but it may help you to have more background information or a better general understanding of the process before you fill out the forms to file your case. These forms – available through the Office of Administrative Hearings (OAH) — are self-explanatory, and you may find they have all the instructions you need to get the process started.

Although this guide doesn’t offer legal advice, it does outline how to request, prepare for, and participate in special education mediation and a due process hearing …………….

To view this OAH publication, please open the following PDF file: Understanding Special Education Due Process Hearing

This subject contains information: Importance of communication, communicating with the school, keeping records, tips for success ……

Please open the following PDF file: Communicating with School (Chinese)

As a result of a 1982 lawsuit that raised the question of “educational benefit,” the California Department of Education developed a process for reasonably calculating “educational benefit.” The process involves reviewing student records through a structured, reflective format that ultimately examines the impact an IEP has on the yearly progress made by a student with special needs by examining the alignment of assessment, present levels of performance, the Individualized Education Program(IEP) goals and objectives, and the supports and services provided. The examination occurs within a single IEP and a comparison of IEPs across a three-year period …….

To view the publication, please open the following PDF file: Educational Benefit Review Process

If you have a child who is receiving special education services, you’re more than likely to be very involved with your child’s schooland teachers ……..

To read the publication, please go the following website.

View the Chinese Translated Publication here

Active listening is a communication skill in which the “Mediator” hears and feeds back the emotional content of the disputant’s message.

Active Listening also …….

To read detailed publication, please open the following PDF file: Active Listening – Purchin Consulting

A curriculum created by the National family Advocacy Support and Training (FAST) Project

Every family has its own values and culture. The values and cultural context are provided by each family.

The curriculum prepared for parents includes:
Preparing youth for the changes of puberty and adolescence Identifying skills needed for adulthood: What youth need to know, when Identifying ideas and tools to assist with the process

Please open the PDF file for detailed curriculum: Journey to Adult: what parents need to know – Sexuality

設計一套便於相互溝通使用的表格,可以用之於事先約定好的時間表上. 這個表格不只要把孩子的難處記下,同時也必須把孩子的長處記入表格內.








Chinese Translation by Chinese Parents Association for The Disabled – CPAD; 華裔殘障者家長協會譯成中文

你有權確定和參加你孩子的個別教育計劃的發展; 如果你不同意, 不要在上面簽字。


公共法94-142(為所有殘障孩童定下的教育法度﹕規定一個免費的適當教育必須供給所有年齡在三歲到二十一歲的殘障孩童。)個別教育計劃是專為你的孩子的需要所作的一個特別的, 和適當的教育具體方法。作為家長的你, 是制定你孩子的個別教育計劃成員中的一個重要份子。所以你必須知道﹕

— 如何為個別教育計劃的會議做準備
— 如何寫出你自已為孩子所定的個別教育計劃
— 如何有效地在個別教育計劃的會議中代表你的孩子
— 如何處理否定的評論和批評
— 如何為你的孩子取得適當的特殊教育,和有關的服務

公共法94-142 (為所有殘障孩子定下的教育法案﹕保證家長有權參與孩子的個別教育計劃的計劃工作。)你必須記在心裏...做為家長...你比任何其他人更暸解你的孩子。專家們可能對現時的理論和教學的運用上專長; 但是你...孩子的家長,卻更能體會到, 從你孩子出生後,他每一天, 每一天的進展和變化。



舉例﹕每天有一個小時的啟智室的時間﹕為自閉症的學童提供的一間獨立的教室。在同一時間內用溝通、干擾、事物和意念的關聯和行為糾正做為治療;也可以將你孩子參加正規教育的計劃寫在個別教育計劃上; 譬如﹕參加正規班級的社會學,體育課,和勞作課..等。


會議必須在一開始時,便報告你的孩子目前的能力水準。孩子的弱點和某方面的實力應該被討論到。從這些問題裏,專家們(一般指的是老師)和家長才能一同制定新學年,全年的教育目的(Annual Goal)。同時擬定短期的教育目標(Shorten Term Goal),短期教育目標需要在近期兩個月到三個月內的時間達到目的。

一個全年的目標(Annual Goal),大體上說明在一年中所需要的改變和進步。舉例﹕ 促進孩子自助的能力,減少自我傷害的行為,以及促進基本數理觀念的了解。全年的目標的次數多寡,按照孩子的本性,和其殘障的嚴重程度而定。 一般來講話, 大的有(5)個目標。

短期的教育目標(Shorten Term Goal),是一份特殊的聲明,指定要在兩個月到三個月的時間將所要求的改變和進步達到目的。這項特殊聲明包括所需用的教學材料,方法,多久一次,以及每一次教學的時間是多少分鐘;同時它也包括測量孩童能力的標準方法的採用,來決定每一個目標達到怎麼樣的程度。


每天放學時,孩子必須嘗試扣好自已外套的扣子。只有在孩子試著扣衣服扣子時,老師才給予適度的幫助。老師會為孩子的努力嘗試給予稱讚的獎勵。孩子有三分鐘的時間學習替一個有大扣子的玩偶扣衣服扣子。每星期三次, 老師在旁給予扶助和用言語上的指導幫助。評斷學習目標達成的標準是孩子能在百分之九十的次數上,做到不需幫助,而能自已扣衣服的扣子。


每天用10 分鐘,一對一的教學,利用初級數學快速換牌增強記憶法,同時每天課堂上有10 分鐘的作業, 四到五個人合成一組,在供給的板上做數學問題。每星期給以三次家庭作業,每一個家庭作業有五個數學問題,家長需要在旁監督。學習目標達成的評定是依照每週的複習測驗結果,如果有百分之八十五的成績是正確的。

你的孩子有權得到有關的服務 — 這是指在發育上, 矯正作用上,和其它有關的輔助服務﹕這些服務能夠幫助殘障的學童在所受的特殊教育中得到利益。有關輔助服務的需要是在對孩子的需要做過適當的評估後而決定的。


個別教育計劃必須將每一個所必需的,有關的服務記載下來﹕開始服務的日期,預計服務持續的時間; 同時,也必須說明一星期有幾次,提供的服務需要多少分鐘,和誰主持教導工作。譬如﹕語言治療20 分鐘,一星期有三次; 體能治療,每天二十分鐘。

當要求有關的服務, 根據你前面所提出的要求, 你的孩子需要給予一個特別的服務,這服務能使他/她在教學計劃上得到利益。 但如果你認為學校當局所提供的服務,並不能準確的反映你孩子的需要,你可以在校外人士中尋求評估(你可以在個別教育計劃會議上提出,要求這份評估費用由學區負擔,學區有時會拒絕你的要求–- 斜字譯者附加意見)。



舉例﹕你可能覺得你的孩子需要職能治療(Occupational Therapy or OT)。學校當局給你的孩子做測驗,他們的結論是﹕你的孩子並不需要職能治療。你懷疑你的孩子有必要接受職能治療,但是你知道孩子的學校此時並沒有僱用職能治療師。因此,你對校方客觀性的評論不能相信,而向外尋求意見。

尋求校外專家的評論,和得到推薦和建議。假如你在校外取得職能治療的推薦和建議,你可以要求召開會議(IEP),修改個別教育計劃。呈上你在校外所得的評估。如果學校拒絕承認這份來自校外專家的評論,你可以立即上訴要求一個聽證會議(Hearing)。 (上面所敘述的過程,也可以用在你的孩子已接受的有關的服務上,可是學校所給的服務時間並不足夠。)


1. 取得一份有關公共法94-142的聯邦法規和條文, 以及州政府的法律條文的影本。你可以從公立學校得到影印本; 如果家長要求,學校是必須提供這些資料的。(可是,許多公立學校,並不知道有這樣的法規,而不供應上述法律條文的資料。)閱讀一些有關的法律條文,在最重要的部份上做記號,同時做一份供你自已參考的索引,利用法律的條文和規定來表達你的孩子。避免採用“最合適”或“最好的教學環境”等語句。


2. 為個別教育計劃的會議做準備,寫下一份你自已為孩子所擬定的教育計劃。要有足夠的影印本分給每一個參加會議的人員。大聲的宣讀你的聲明。這樣做可以確保你所關懷的問題被對方聽到,你的陳述應該簡單的表明你認為所要求的服務,目標,和目地是適合你孩子的。 你不需要寫下一個完整的個別教育計劃,也不需要規定採用甚麼教材(除非你已有一個你喜用的教材)。這些將會在個教育計劃會議中擬定。你主要的目標是表達你對你的孩子在教育需要的看法和觀點。(可以參考家長在個別教育計劃的會議中的聲明例子。)

(Material from: How to Get Services by Being Assertive; Chapter 17 – How to Be Assertive At Your Child’s IEP by Des Jardina C.) (Chinese Translation by Chinese Parents Association for The Disabled – CPAD; 華裔殘障者家長協會譯成中文)